(History of civilization: …, Barcelona, 1935, author: E. Sanderson).
Notwithstanding what has been said, and despite the fact that Stoicism in Epictetus’ time was the doctrine professed by people of strong spirit, this philosophical system had undergone important modifications in Rome, due to the following:
The word law (ius), a technical and rigorous formula, mystery and aristocratic weapon at the beginning of Rome, took very later, due to the progress of civilization and Science, a completely different aspect and as its use became general, it passed From the secret initiation of the patricians to the publicity of the commoners, with the influence of Letters and Philosophy, and organizing itself as a true science, it underwent a radical metamorphosis in its fundamental principles (De antiquis regulis juris, originem atque progressum disciplinae jctorum romanorum. ., RP, 1833, author: FD Sanio).
The invention of writing allowed, by fixing the Law, written law, to subtract it from the monopoly of the aristocratic class, which had become its depository and Roman Law, begins, by a Code, that of the Law of the Twelve Tables, proof certain that antehistoric theories about the law of nature and the social pact cannot prevail over written documents and the study of laws.
The ius gentium was not, at first, as opposed to civil law, and as a simple collection of the rights proper to the neighboring tribes of Rome, more than object of contempt for the Roman legislators and a complete revolution in Roman ideas was necessary. For that right to become in the Empire the type and model of all and this crisis was due to the Greek influence of the law of nature that came to apply to the administrative practice of the common law of all nations, they recognized it the Romans and transformed it as a result of a philosophical influence, that of the Philosophy of the Stoics.
It was therefore a profound revolution and its progress was extraordinarily rapid and as a consequence of it the ideas of simplification and generalization penetrated into Roman law, renewed and extended it and the ancient law of nations was also transformed by the notions of equity. , thanks to that philosophical revolution.
In Roman law, man as such is not a person or only the man in whom the law recognizes the capacity of rights, the Roman laws denying this capacity to slaves and freedom was the main foundation of all personality, but it was not enough for Alone to attribute civil rights, since Roman citizenship was the main foundation of civil personality and to enjoy the full capacity of civil and political rights the following was necessary:
But this state of “unharmed dignity” as the Romans called it, could be totally lost or could be diminished, by the following:
The owner had the right to possess the thing that belonged to him, even when he did not actually possess it, and the property (dominium, proprietas) was a real right, by virtue of which a person (dominus, proprietarius) had over a corporeal thing a immediate and independent power.